Anemoi – Wikipedia
Anemoi – Wikipedia

Anemoi – Wikipedia

Group of Greek gods
Wind rose of ancient Greece, created by the learner Adamantios Korais around 1796
In ancient greek religion and myth, the Anemoi ( greek : Ἄνεμοι, “ Winds ” ) were scent gods who were each ascribed a cardinal direction from which their respective winds came ( see Classical compass winds ), and were each associated with assorted seasons and upwind conditions. They were the offspring of Eos and Astraeus. [ 1 ]

etymology [edit ]

The earliest attestation of the bible in Greek and of the worship of the winds by the Greeks, are possibly the Mycenaean Greek word-forms 𐀀𐀚𐀗𐀂𐀋𐀩𐀊, a-ne-mo-i-je-re-ja, 𐀀𐀚𐀗𐄀𐀂𐀋𐀩𐀊, a-ne-mo,i-je-re-ja, i.e. “ priestess of the winds ”. These words, written in Linear B, are found on the KN Fp 1 and KN Fp 13 tablets. [ 2 ] [ 3 ]

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mythology [edit ]

The Anemoi are minor gods and are capable to the idol Aeolus. They were sometimes represented as gusts of wind, and at early times were personified as fly men. They were besides sometimes depicted as horses kept in the stables of the storm deity Aeolus, who provided Odysseus with the Anemoi in the Odyssey. The Spartans were reported to sacrifice a cavalry to the winds on Mount Taygetus. [ 4 ] Astraeus, the astrological deity ( sometimes associated with Aeolus ), and Eos / Aurora, the goddess of the dawn, were the parents of the Anemoi, according to the Greek poet Hesiod. Of the four headman Anemoi, Boreas ( Aquilo in Roman mythology ) is the north wind and bringer of cold winter air, Zephyrus ( Favonius in Latin ) [ 5 ] is the west wind and bringer of light jump and early-summer breezes, and Notus ( Auster in Latin ) is the south wind and bringer of the storms of late summer and fall ; Eurus, the southeast [ 6 ] ( or according to some, [ 7 ] the east ) wind, was not associated with any of the three greek seasons, and is the only one of these four Anemoi not mentioned in Hesiod ‘s Theogony or in the Orphic hymn. The deities equivalent to the Anemoi in Roman mythology were the Venti ( Latin, “ winds ” ). These gods had different names, but were otherwise identical similar to their greek counterparts, borrowing their attributes and being frequently conflated with them. Ptolomy ‘s world map listed 12 winds : Septentrio ( N ), Aquilo ( NNE ), Vulturnus ( NE ), Subsolanus ( E ), Eurus ( SE ), Euroauster ( SSE ), Austerulnotus ( S ), Euronotus ( SSW ), Affricus ( SW ), Ephirus ( W ), Eurus ( NW ), Circius ( NNW ) .

Boreas [edit ]

velificatio) overhead. AfghanistanGreco-Buddhist fragment of the god Boreas with billowing cloak () overhead. Hadda Boreas ( Βορέας, Boréas ; besides Βορρᾶς, Borrhâs ) [ 8 ] is the greek idol of the cold union wind and the bringer of winter. Although he was normally taken as the north wind instrument, the Roman writers Aulus Gellius and Pliny the Elder both took Boreas as a northeast fart, equivalent to the Roman Aquilo. [ 9 ] Boreas is depicted as being very impregnable, with a violent temper to match. He was frequently shown as a fly old valet with bushy hair and beard, holding a conch shell and wearing a billow cloak. Pausanias wrote that Boreas had snakes rather of feet, though in art he was normally depicted with winged human feet. Boreas ‘ two sons Calaïs and Zetes ( the Boreads ) were separate of the crew of the Argo as Argonauts. [ 10 ] [ 11 ] Boreas was closely associated with horses. He was said to have fathered twelve colts after taking the human body of a stallion, to the mares of Erichthonius, king of Dardania. These were said to be able to run across a field of grain without trampling the plants. Pliny the Elder ( Natural History iv.35 and viii.67 ) thought that mares might stand with their hindquarters to the North Wind and give birth foals without a stallion. The Greeks believed that his home was in Thrace, and Herodotus and Pliny both describe a northerly land known as Hyperborea “ Beyond the North Wind ” where people lived in complete happiness and had inordinately long lifespans. He is said to have fathered three elephantine Hyperborean priests of Apollo by Chione. Boreas was besides said to have kidnapped Orithyia, an athenian princess, from the Ilisos. Boreas had taken a fancy to Orithyia and had initially pleaded for her favours, hoping to persuade her. When this failed, he reverted to his usual anneal and abducted her as she danced on the banks of the Ilisos. Boreas wrapped Orithyia up in a obscure, married her, and with her, Boreas fathered two sons—the Boreads, Zethes and Calais—and two daughters— Chione, goddess of snow, and Cleopatra. From then on, the Athenians saw Boreas as a relative by marriage. When Athens was threatened by Xerxes, the people prayed to Boreas, who was said to have then caused winds to sink 400 persian ships. A cult was established in Athens in 480 B. C. E. in gratitude to the Boreas for destroying the approaching iranian fleet. [ 12 ] A exchangeable event had occurred twelve years early, and Herodotus writes : [ 13 ]

Now I cannot say if this was really why the Persians were caught at anchor by the stormwind, but the Athenians are quite positive that, just as Boreas helped them before, so Boreas was responsible for what happened on this occasion also. And when they went home they built the god a shrine by the River Ilissus.

The abduction of Orithyia was popular in Athens before and after the Persian War, and was frequently depicted on vase paintings. In these paintings, Boreas was portrayed as a bearded man in a tunic, with bushy haircloth that is sometimes frosted and spiked. The abduction was besides dramatized in Aeschylus ‘s lost play Oreithyia. In other accounts, Boreas was the forefather of Butes ( by another charwoman ) and the lover of the nymph Pitys .

Aquilo ( Septentrio ) [edit ]

The Roman equivalent of Boreas was Aquilo. [ 14 ] This north ( and slenderly east ) scent [ 15 ] was associated with winter. The poet Virgil writes : [ 16 ]

Interea magnum sol circumvolvitur annum,
et glacialis hiemps aquilonibus asperat undas.
Now had the sun rolled through the year’s full circle,
and the waves were rough with icy winter’s northern gales[17]

For the wind which came directly from the north the Romans sometimes used the name Septentrio, which refers to the seven ( septem ) stars of the Plow or Big Dipper configuration. The name “ Septentrio ” gave ascent to the pre-modern compass point Septentrionalis. [ 18 ]

Zephyrus [edit ]

Zephyrus ( Gk. Ζέφυρος [ Zéphyros ] ), [ 5 ] sometimes shortened in English to Zephyr, is the greek god of the west wind. The gentlest of the winds, Zephyrus is known as the fructify wind, the messenger of form. It was thought that Zephyrus lived in a cave in Thrace. Zephyrus was reported as having several wives in different stories. He was said to be the husband of Iris, goddess of the rainbow. He abducted the goddess Chloris, and gave her the knowledge domain of flowers. With Chloris, he fathered Karpos ( “ fruit ” ). He is said to have vied for Chloris ‘s beloved with his brother Boreas, finally winning her devotion. additionally, with so far another sister and lover, the vixen Podarge ( besides known as Celaeno ), Zephyrus was said to be the don of Balius and Xanthus, Achilles ‘ horses. In the fib of Eros and Psyche, Zephyrus served Eros ( or Cupid ) by transporting Psyche to his bide.

Zephyrus was besides claimed to have killed one of Apollo ‘s many male lovers Hyacinth out of jealousy. Hyacinth was killed by a discus thrown by Apollo. Though according to some sources, his death was said to be an accident, others said that Zephyrus was the true perpetrator, having blown the discus off course. Zephyrus ‘ Roman equivalent was Favonius ( the ‘favouring ‘ ) who held dominion over plants and flowers. The Roman poet Horace writes : [ 19 ]

quid fles, Asterie, quem tibi candidi
primo restituent vere Favonii?
Why do you weep, Asterie, for the man whom the bright west winds
will restore to you at the beginning of spring?

Notus ( Auster ) [edit ]

Notus ( Νότος, Nótos ) was the greek god of the confederacy wreathe. He was associated with the desiccating blistering wind of the rise of Sirius after summer solstice, was thought to bring the storms of former summer and fall, and was feared as a destroyer of crops. [ 20 ]
A statue of Notus. Notus ‘ equivalent in Roman mythology was Auster, the shape of the dust storm wind, a southerly wreathe which brings cloudy weather, brawny winds and rain to southerly Europe. ( Auster named the circumnavigate point Australis and the country ‘s name Australia. ) The Auster winds are mentioned in Virgil ‘s Aeneid Book II, lines 304–307 :

in segetem veluti cum flamma furentibus Austris incidit,
aut rapidus montano flumine torrens
sternit agros, sternit sata laeta boumque labores,
praecipitesque trahit silvas
Just as when a flame falls on the standing grain while the South Winds rage,
or a rushing mountain stream lays low the fields,
lays low the glad crops and labors of oxen,
and drags down forests headlong.

Another Roman poet, Tibullus 1.1, lines 47–48, speaks of the pleasure of lying in sleep together on showery winter days :

aut, gelidas hibernus aquas cum fuderit Auster,
securum somnos igne iuvante sequi
or when the winter South Wind has poured out his cold waters,
to fall asleep carefree with the help of a fire.

The mention “ Australia ” ( the ‘southern land ‘ ) is derived from Auster. [ 21 ]

Eurus [edit ]

Eurus ( Εὖρος, Euros ) according to some was the southeast hoist, but according to others the east wind. [ 7 ] On the Tower of the Winds in Athens, Eurus occupies the southeast side, while Apeliotes is in the east. however, it is widely accepted [ who? ] that Eurus is the east wind, while Apeliotes is the southeast wind. Eurus ‘ Roman counterpart is Vulturnus, according to Pliny the Elder ; [ 22 ] but for Aulus Gellius Volturnus was the equivalent of the southeast wind Euronotus. [ 23 ] generally in the Latin poets the name Eurus is used for the east or southeast wreathe, as in Greek. [ 24 ] Eurus is a wind of storm, described as a disruptive wind during storms and tossing ships on the ocean. [ 25 ] [ 26 ] He is referred to as the “ savior of Sparta ” in a Homeric encomium, or poem. [ 27 ] Eurus is besides called the “ hot tip ” by Nonnus in Dionysiaca. Eurus is closely related to Helios in passages of the Dionysiaca, being called from his topographic point near Helios ’ palace, Phaethon, where the sun rose in the east. [ 28 ]

Lesser winds [edit ]

Four lesser fart deities appear in a few ancient sources, such as at the Tower of the Winds in Athens : Kaikias ( or Caecius ) is the greek deity of the northeasterly scent. He is shown on the monument as a beard man with a shield full of hailstones. Apeliotes [ 29 ] ( or Apheliotes ; the appoint means ‘from the ( rising ) sun ‘ ) is the greek deity of the southeast tip. [ 30 ] As this wind was thought to cause a review rain particularly beneficial to farmers, he is much depicted wearing high boots and carrying yield, draped in a light fabric concealing some flowers or grain. He is clean-shaven, with curly hair and a friendly expression. Because Apeliotes is a minor god, he was frequently syncretized with Eurus, the east wind. [ citation needed ] The Roman counterpart of Apeliotes is Subsolanus. [ 31 ] Skiron was the name used in Athens for the scent which blew from the Scironian rocks ( a geographic feature near Kineta to the west of Athens ). [ 32 ] On the Tower of the Winds, however, he appears on the northwest side. His name is related to Skirophorion, the last of the three months of spring in the Attic calendar. He is depicted as a bearded homo tilting a caldron, representing the attack of winter. His roman counterpart is Caurus [ 33 ] or Corus. [ 34 ] Caurus is besides one of the oldest roman wind-deities, and numbered among the di indigetes ( “ autochthonal gods ” ), a group of abstract and largely minor numinous entities. The Roman poet Virgil writes when describing steppe winter weather near the Sea of Azov : [ 35 ]

Semper hiemps, semper spirantes frigora cauri
Always winter, always the northwest winds breathing cold

Lips is the greek deity of the southwest tip, much depicted holding the austere of a ship. His roman equivalent was Africus, due to the Roman province Africa being to the southwest of Italy. This name is thought to be derived from the appoint of a north african tribe, the Afri. other minor hoist deities included :

  • Argestes “clearing”, a wind blowing from about the same direction as Skiron (Caurus), and probably another name for it
  • Aparctias, sometimes called the north wind instead of Boreas
  • Thrascias, the north-northwest wind (sometimes called in Latin Circius)
  • Euronotus, the wind blowing from the direction, as its name suggests, between Euros and Notus, that is, a south-southeast wind (Euroauster to the Romans)
  • Iapyx, the northwest wind about the same as Caurus. It was this wind, according to Virgil, that carried the fleeing Cleopatra home to Egypt after she was defeated at the battle of Actium.[13]
  • Libonotus, the south-southwest wind, known as Austro-Africus to the Romans
  • Meses, another name for the northwest wind
  • Olympias, apparently identified with Skiron/Argestes
  • Phoenicias, another name for the southeast wind (“the one blowing from Phoenicia”, due to this land lying to the southeast of Greece)

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

far reading [edit ]

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